Developmental goals are the organizing motivational units that enable individuals to take an active role in shaping their own life course and development. Developmental goals are similar to other goals in that they are anticipated end states that exert a directional influence on an individual’s behavior. Theory emphasizes the social nature of our development rather than its sexual nature. While Freud believed that personality is shaped only in childhood, Erikson proposed that personality development takes place all through the lifespan.
This method can be used to draw conclusions about which types of development are universal and occur in most members of a cohort. As an example a longitudinal study of early literacy development examined in detail how do you get playlists on tiktok the early literacy experiences of one child in each of 30 families. A child’s social and emotional development can be disrupted by motor coordination problems, evidenced by the environmental stress hypothesis.
A related issue is whether in a certain culture some specific threats to primary control are viewed as accessible to primary control, as opposed to secondary control in some other cultures. In a study comparing preferred control strategies in Thai and American children, Thai children were found to prefer secondary control when adult authority figures were involved or when being separated from a friend (McCarty et al., 1999). American children, by contrast, favored secondary control in case of physical injury. Thus, there is not simply a main effect of culture on preferred control strategy, but culture and stressor characteristics interact to determine preferences for primary or secondary control.
An example of accommodation is that same child’s schema of “dog” being adjusted to exclude other four-legged furry animals such as sheep and foxes. The life-span paradigm has been especially influential in charting connections between age trends in psychological phenomenon and historical time. Ryan RM, Deci EL. Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being.
As motor skills develop, there are certain developmental milestones that young children should achieve (Table 9.4). For each milestone there is an average age, as well as a range of ages in which the milestone should be reached. Sitting involves both coordination and muscle strength, and 90% of babies achieve this milestone between 5 and 9 months old. In another example, babies on average are able to hold up their head at 6 weeks old, and 90% of babies achieve this between 3 weeks and 4 months old. If a baby is not holding up his head by 4 months old, he is showing a delay.
“To many, the concept of continuous, quantifiable measurement seems to be the essence of science”. Attachment is established in early childhood and attachment continues into adulthood. When involved in intimate relationships the way adults are able to handle relationship issues depends on their attachment styles that were formed during their childhood. An example of secure attachment continuing in adulthood would be when the person feels confident and is able to meet their own needs.
Table 5 presents verbal fluency scores by age group according to different authors from studies of adult populations. Szaflarski et al. used a longitudinal design to obtain additional evidence for progressive and regressive changes in brain development during the school years. They obtained fMRI data annually for a period of 5 years using a verbal generation task paradigm.
Early Piagetian theory can be described according to its structural aspects. The structural theory as outlined by Flavell is a stage model (criteria 1 – stages). These general stages are sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete-operations, and formal operations. Progression through these stages is due to biological adaptation.